14 Punctuation Marks in English (विराम चिन्ह)

14 Punctuation Marks in English

There are 14 Punctuation Marks in English (अंग्रेजी में 14 विराम चिन्ह हैं) –

1. Full Stop or Period (.) – पूर्ण विराम
2. Question Mark (?) – प्रश्नवाचक चिन्ह
3. Exclamation Mark or Exclamation Point (!) – विस्मयादिबोधक चिन्ह
4. Comma (,) – अल्पविराम
5. Quotation Marks or Speech Marks or Inverted Commas – (” “) or (‘ ‘) – उद्धरण चिन्ह
6. Colon (:) – अपूर्ण विराम
7. Semicolon or Semi-colon (;) – अर्धविराम
8. Apostrophe (‘) – अक्षर लोप चिन्ह
9. Dash (—) – डैश चिन्ह
10. Hyphen (-) – हायफ़न चिन्ह
11. Parentheses or Round Brackets – ( ) – छोटा कोष्टक
12. Braces or Curly Brackets – { } – मझला कोष्टक
13. Brackets or Square Brackets – [ ] – बड़ा कोष्टक
14. Ellipsis – ( … or …. ) – ऐलिप्सिस

विराम चिन्हों के माध्यम से वाक्य के प्रकार(Types) व ठहराव (Pause and Stops) की जानकारी मिलती है। इससे हमें लिखे गये Sentence के भाव/अंदाज (Sense) का पता लगता है।

Out of 14, there are only three punctuation marks, which are used to end a sentence. They are:
14 में से केवल 3 ही विराम चिन्ह ऐसे हैं जो वाक्य को समाप्त करने के लिए प्रयोग किये जाते हैं। वे हैं –


1. Full Stop or Period (.) 
    Declarative and Imperative sentences end with a full stop. 
    कथात्मक एवं आदेशात्मक वाक्यों के अन्त में पूर्ण विराम लगता है।

2. Question Mark (?)
    Interrogative sentences end with a question mark.
    प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों के अन्त में प्रश्नवाचक चिन्ह लगता है।
3. Exclamation Mark or Exclamation Point (!)
    Exclamatory and Optative Sentences end with an exclamation mark.
    विस्मयादिबोधक और इच्छासूचक वाक्य के अन्त में एक विस्मयादिबोधक चिह्न लगता है।

Full Stop or Period (.) – पूर्ण विराम

A Full Stop or Period (.) is used:
1) at the end of Declarative & Imperative Sentences (कथात्मक एवं आदेशात्मक वाक्यों के अन्त में)
2) after an Abbreviation (किसी भी Abbreviation के बाद)

At the end of Declarative & Imperative Sentences (कथात्मक एवं आदेशात्मक वाक्यों के अन्त में)

Declarative Sentences (कथात्मक वाक्य) :-  

  • He is my best friend.
  • You never meet me.
  • He didn’t pay the bills.
  • I love the way you work.

Imperative Sentences (आदेशात्मक वाक्य) :-

  • Go there.
  • Don’t meet him ever again.
  • Let him talk to me.
  • Let Ashish call Aman.
These 14 Punctuation Marks are the back bone of English Writing ….

After an Abbreviation (किसी भी Abbreviation के बाद)

An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or a phrase.
Abbreviation किसी शब्द या शब्दों के समूह का संक्षिप्त रूप होता है।

  • B.A. / BA – Bachelor of Arts
  • B.Sc. / BSc – Bachelor of Science
  • M.Sc. / MSc – Master of Science
  • B.Com. / BCom– Bachelor of Commerce
  • B.Arch. / BArch – Bachelor of Architecture
  • M.A. / MA – Master of Arts
  • M.B.A. / MBA – Master of Business Administration
  • M.L.A. / MLA – Member of Legislative Assembly
  • M.P. / MP – Member of Parliament
  • P.M. / PM – Prime Minister
  • e.g. – Exampli Gratia (For example)
  • i.e. – Id est (That is)
  • etc. – Etcetera (And so on)
  • A.M. / AM / a.m. / am – Ante Meridiem (Before noon/midday)
  • P.M. / PM / p.m. / pm – Post Meridiem (After noon/midday)

Note:
Never use “e.g.” or “i.e.” or “etc.” in upper case.
(कभी भी “e.g.” या “i.e.” या “etc.” को बड़े अक्षरों में नहीं लिखा जाता।)

Examples (उदाहरण):

  • I have many friends, e.g., Rahul, Ramesh, Ranjan, Armaan etc.
  • I can play only 3 instruments, i.e., Guitar, Sitar and Piano.

Few grammarians believe, there are more than 14 Punctuation Marks in English. They include “Underscore (_)” in one of them. But Oxford and Cambridge don’t suggest it.

Question Mark (?) – प्रश्नवाचक चिन्ह

A Question Mark (?) used to ask a question.
प्रश्नवाचक चिन्ह किसी भी प्रश्न के अन्त में प्रयोग किया जाता है।

  • Did you call him yesterday?
  • Do you understand the value of time?
  • Could you please pass the phone on to Rajendra?
  • May I come in?

14 Punctuation Marks in English continues…..

Exclamation Mark (!) – विस्मयादिबोधक चिन्ह

An Exclamation Mark (!) is used to express sudden joy, grief, surprise, shock, wish etc. All such sentences are known as Exclamatory Sentences.
(विस्मयादिबोधक
चिन्ह मन में अचानक उत्पन्न हुई भावनाओं को व्यक्त के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है।)

  • So sweet!
  • Get out of here!
  • Thank you so much!
  • Wow!
  • Amazing!
  • There is a tiger!
  • He is crazy for guitar!

If I had said, “There is a tiger.”; I would have been simply telling you a fact; but, when I replace the period with an exclamation mark at the end of the sentence, as in “There is a tiger!”, it expresses my sudden outcry. I might be shocked or surprised or probably alarming others against the danger.

अगर मैं कहता, “There is a tiger.”; यानि Tiger के बाद Full stop; तो मैं आपको मात्र एक तथ्य बात बता रहा होता कि वहाँ पर एक Tiger है। लेकिन, जब मैं इसी वाक्य को लिखते वक्त इसके अंत में Full stop (.) के बजाय एक exclamation mark (!) लगा देता हूँ, जैसे कि ये देखिएः “There is a tiger!”,  तो ये मेरे मन में अचानक उत्पन्न हुई किसी भावना को व्यक्त करने जैसा है। मैं या तो चौंक गया हूँ या आश्चर्यचकित हो रहा हूँ या शायद खतरे के खिलाफ दूसरों को सचेत कर रहा हूँ।

Comma (,) – अल्पविराम

A Comma (,) is used:
a) to give a short pause (ज़रा सा विराम देने के लिए)
b) always after Introductory Adverbs or Adverb Phrases (वाक्य के शुरूआत में विशेषण के तुरन्त बाद)
c) to introduce a quotation (किसी भी Quotation को शुरू करने के लिए)

To give a short pause (ज़रा सा विराम देने के लिए)

  • Armaan, do one thing.
  • Ayansh, come here.
  • I have a pen, a pencil and a mobile.
  • Yes, I will go there.
  • No, he doesn’t want to go there.
  • I have many friends e.g. Aman, Amit, Sandeep etc.
  • If he comes, I will not come.

Point to be noted:
In both the following sentences, there is a little difference.
The latter one has an additional comma (,) just before the word “and”. You’ll be amazed to know that either way is correct. It’s all your choice whether to use a comma before “and” or not. This comma is known as an “Oxford comma” or a “Harvard comma”.

निम्नलिखित दोनों वाक्यों में बस थोड़ा सा लिखने का ही अंतर है। बाद वाले वाक्य में “और(and)” शब्द के पहले एक अतिरिक्त अल्पविराम/ कौमा (,) है। आपको यह जानकर बहुत आश्चर्य होगा कि दोनों ही तरीके से लिखा गया वाक्य सही है। यह केवल आपकी पसंद है कि आप “और” के पहले अल्पविराम/कौमा का प्रयोग करना चाहते हैं या नहीं। इस अल्पविराम/कौमा को “ऑक्सफोर्ड कौमा” या “हार्वर्ड कौमा” के रूप में जाना जाता है।

  • I have a pen, a pencil and a mobile. (Correct)
  • I have a pen, a pencil, and a mobile. (Correct)

Always after Introductory Adverbs or Adverb Phrases (वाक्य के शुरूआत में विशेषण के तुरन्त बाद)

Introductory adverbs are in italics and Adverb phrases are bold in the following examples: 
नीचे दिये उदाहरणों में Introductory adverbs को तिरछा एवं Adverb phrases को गाढा काला दर्शाया गया है।

  • Unfortunately, nobody supported me in these elections.
  • Finally, he passed the exam.
  • Nervously, she faced the interviewer.
  • Surprisingly, he called me exactly when I needed it.
  • Suddenly, his father turned up.
  • Obviously, you can’t climb the mountain.
  • However, I’m sure of success.
  • Eventually, he accomplished the mission.
  • Today, I will come to meet you.
  • Tomorrow, we’ll have a chat over this issue.
  • All of a sudden, he decided to change the whole team.
  • At last, I must congratulate you for this success once again.
  • Within a minute, he solved the question.
  • Just after a while, she asked me to buy her a pen.
  • With a little hesitation, he started peeping through the hole.
  • At the end, honestly won against evil.
  • Likewise, he called me and informed me the same.
  • In the same fashion, they treated us throughout the conference.
  • As an illustration, she presented this slide before the scientists.

To introduce a quotation (किसी भी Quotation को शुरू करने के लिए)

A Comma(,) is used to introduce a quotation. In other words, it’s used at the end of the reporting speech in a Direct Narration. (अल्प विराम का प्रयोग किसी भी Quotation को शुरू करने से पहले किया जाता है।)

  • He asked me, “Do you know who I am?”
  • My dad says, “Never hurt anyone.”
  • He said, “I am your best friend.”
  • Anjali says, “Mayank often goes to Pankaj’s house.”

Quotation Marks ( ” ” ) – उद्धरण चिन्ह

Quotation Marks are also known as Speech Marks or Inverted Commas.
इन्हें Speech Marks और Inverted Commas भी कहा जाता है।
( ” ” ) – Double inverted commas
( ‘ ‘ ) – Double inverted commas

Point no. 1: (Good to know information) 

Surprisingly, we can use the Full Stop (.) either inside or outside the quote. Both are acceptable. It’s surprising, isn’t it??
कमाल की बात है कि Full Stop (.) को अन्दर और बाहर दोनों तरफ प्रयोग कर सकते हैं।
He said, ” I am your best friend.” – (UK English – Full stop is inside.)
He said, ” I am your best friend“. – (US English – Full stop is outside.)

Point no. 2: 

When we mention something about a particular letter or number or a word, we can highlight it either with the Double Inverted Commas or Single Inverted Commas, or even without Inverted Commas too, as stated below.
किसी अक्षर, शब्द या अंक के बारे में बताते वक्त आप उस अक्षर, शब्द या अंक को Double Inverted Commas या Single Inverted Commas, या फिर बिना किसी Inverted Commas के प्रस्तुत कर सकते हैं।

  • “I” is my favourite letter.  (Correct)
  • ‘I’ is my favourite letter. (Correct)
  • I is my favourite letter. (Correct)

  • “5” is my favourite number. (Correct)
  • ‘5’ is my favourite number. (Correct)
  • 5 is my favourite number. (Correct)

  • “Strategic” is a difficult word to pronounce. (Correct)
  • ‘Strategic’ is a difficult word to pronounce. (Correct)
  • Strategic is a difficult word to pronounce. (Correct)

Point no. 3: 

Unlike above, when we talk about a complete sentence, we can only highlight it with either the Double Inverted Commas or Single Inverted Commas.
किसी अक्षर, शब्द या अंक की तरह, आप किसी पूर्ण वाक्य को Double Inverted Commas या Single Inverted Commas के साथ तो दर्शा सकते हैं परन्तु बिना किसी Inverted Commas के नहीं, क्योंकि एक वाक्य में दो Full Stop (.) सम्भव नहीं।

  • “I miss you.” is my favourite sentence. (Correct)
  • ‘I miss you.’ is my favourite sentence. (Correct)
  • I miss you. is my favourite sentence. [Incorrect, because of having two full stops in one sentence. {NOT POSSIBLE}]

Point no. 4: 

Importantly, if there is a quote inside another quote, then we must strictly use “Single Inverted Commas” with the inside quote. In the following example, the inside quote is bold.
जब भी कभी एक Quotation के अन्दर दूसरा आ जाये, तो हमेशा ही “Single Inverted Commas” का प्रयोग करें।

  • He asked me, “Can you pronounce the word ‘Albeit‘?” (Correct)
  • He asked me, “Can you pronounce the word “Albeit“?” (Incorrect)
  • Dad says, ” He loves the letter ‘L‘ since childhood.” (Correct)
  • Dad says, ” He loves the letter “L” since childhood.” (Incorrect)

Colon ( : )

A Colon (:) is used:
1) to introduce a quotation (किसी भी Quotation को शुरू करने के लिए)
2) to enumerate a list (किसी भी चीज की लिस्ट बताने के लिए)
3) to mention the Time & Ratio (समय या अनुपात बताते वक्त)

To Introduce a Quotation (किसी भी Quotation को शुरू करने के लिए)

Just like a Comma(,), we can also use a Semicolon(;) to introduce a quotation:
Comma(,) की ही तरह, Semicolon(;) का प्रयोग भी किसी Quotation को शुरू करने के लिए किया जा सकता है।

  • He asked me, “Can you pronounce the word ‘Albeit’?” (Correct)
  • He asked me: “Can you pronounce the word ‘Albeit’?” (Correct)

  • My dad says, “Never hurt anyone.” (Correct)
  • My dad says: “Never hurt anyone.” (Correct)

  • He said, “I am your best friend.” (Correct)
  • He said: “I am your best friend.” (Correct)

  • Anjali says, “Mayank often goes to Pankaj’s house.” (Correct)
  • Anjali says: “Mayank often goes to Pankaj’s house.” (Correct)

To enumerate a list (किसी भी चीज की लिस्ट बताने के लिए)

  • I have many things: books, pens, one mobile etc.
  • I met many people: Anjali, Kuldeep, Dimple and Seema.
  • He has many friends: Sumit, Ranjay, Kabir, Arjun, Mayank, Tanya, Anushka, Rehman etc.
  • What you need to do is: Read grammar rules, Watch English movies, Read my blogs at www.spokenenglish.guru etc.
  • There are three types of tenses:
    1) Present Tense
    2) Past Tense
    3) Future Tense

To mention the Time & Ratio (समय या अनुपात बताते वक्त)

  • 2:15 AM, 6:00 o’clock, etc.
  • 5:3, 10:25, etc.
Colon is one of the 14 Punctuation Marks in English, which is really not a cup of team for most of the students.

Apostrophe ( ‘ ) – अक्षर लोप चिन्ह

An Apostrophe (‘) is used in three cases:
1) To express possession (अधिकार या कब्जा बताने हेतु)
2) To contract two or more words (दो या दो से अधिक शब्दों को जोडकर छोटा करने हेतु)
3) Other Special Cases (अन्य खास मामले)

To express possession (अधिकार या कब्जा बताने हेतु)

  • This is Rashmi’s pen.
  • My father’s friend’s brother is coming home today.
  • That boy’s shirt is worn out.
  • This is a boys’ hostel.
  • He found himself in a ladies’ compartment.
  • This is Vikas’s mobile.

Look at the following sentences:

  • This is a boy’s hostel. (Incorrect)
  • This is a boys’ hostel. (Correct)
  • This is Vikas’s mobile. (Correct)
  • This is Vikas’ mobile. (Correct)

Do you want to know why the 1st sentence is incorrect and why the others are correct? {Please watch the video embedded above in this article to understand it thoroughly)

To contract two or more words (दो या दो से अधिक शब्दों को जोडकर छोटा करने हेतु)

  • I have = I’ve (आइव)
  • I am = I’m (आयम)
  • You are = You’re (य़ोर)
  • I would have = I’d’ve (आय्वुडव)
  • Am not = Ain’t (एन्ट)
  • Shall not = Shan’t (शॉन्ट)
  • Does not – Doesn’t (डज़न्ट/ डज़न)
  • Is not – Isn’t (इज़न्ट या इज़न)
  • Do not – Don’t (डोन्ट)
  • Has not – Hasn’t (हैज़न)
  • Have not – Haven’t (हैवन)
  • Cannot – Can’t (कैनॉट या  कान्ट)
  • Should not – Shouldn’t (शुडन्ट)
  • Would not – Wouldn’t (वुन्ट)
  • Could not – Couldn’t (कुडन्ट)

Here is the video on Contractions, please watch and learn:

Other Special Cases (अन्य खास मामले)

Please choose the correct alternatives:
Q1: How many ………………. are there in 11291213115?

a) 1’s
b) 1s
Q2: How many ………………. are there in the word “Tomorrow”?
a) m’s
b) ms
Q3: How many ………………. did you speak in your last paragraph?
a) the’s
b) thes

Answers: 1(a) – 1’s, 2(a) – m’s, 3(a) – the’s

Please note, always use 1’s, 2’s, 3’s… or a’s, b’s, c’s…etc.

Hope you loved this article “14 Punctuation Marks in English”.

अभी आगे और भी अपडेट होना है।… Please wait. – Aditya sir

Homework:

Can you use the following important words or phrases in sentences properly???? If you can, do write in the comments section of this article (as many as you can). It’ll help you in learning.

  1. In the other words
  2. On the contrary
  3. As an illustration
  4. In the same fashion
  5. By all means
  6. As a matter of fact
  7. For this reason
  8. Not to mention
  9. Needless to say
  10. In contrast
  11. At the same time
  12. Above all
  13. Accordingly
  14. As a rule
  15. As an example
  16. Furthermore
  17. Subsequently
  18. Thereby
  19. Particularly
  20. Conversely
  21. In spite of
  22. Above all
  23. Last but not the least
  24. Equally important
  25. By the time
  26. Otherwise
  27. To begin with
  28. In addition to
  29. In the first place
  30. To say nothing of
  31. Likewise
  32. Comparatively
  33. Additionally
  34. Although this may be true
  35. Nonetheless
  36. Nevertheless
  37. Notwithstanding
  38. In general
  39. To enumerate
  40. To put it another way
  41. With this in mind
  42. As can be seen
  43. As has been noted
  44. At this instant
  45. To begin with
  46. In the meantime
  47. Meanwhile
  48. In due time
  49. In due course
  50. To summerize
  51. In either case
  52. In the event that
  53. Provided that
  54. Regardless of
  55. Regardless
  56. Even when
  57. So as to
  58. Owing to
  59. To say nothing of
  60. As usual
  61. Together with
  62. Of course
  63. Be that as it may
  64. Coupled with
  65. Correspondingly
  66. After all
  67. In reality
  68. To put it another way
  69. With attention to
  70. Moreover

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11 thoughts on “14 Punctuation Marks in English (विराम चिन्ह)”

  1. Sir! please make a video on these words and their meaning as well as examples
    Which will be very helpful for us to improve English language.
    I shall be highly obliged to you

    1. Vaibhav Laxmi sinha

      Sir. Could you please make a separate video which u gave us homework words. That would be very helpful for us.
      And thanku so much Sir for your assistance to learn English language. 🙏🙏

  2. Sir
    I have a doubt
    Have been use in for or since but i saw him manytimes. Different sentance use in have been not for or since available in sentance.
    i.e. you film have been consistently successful at the box office.
    I can’t understand some sentance when i read the newspaper. How to use have been that sentance.

  3. Home work:

    In the other words – Life is full of struggles in other words, life’s full of ups and downs.
    On the contrary – You are young. I, on the contrary, am very old.

    As an illustration – Charts of Spoken English Guru’s as an illustrations are very good.

    In the same fashion – His photograph was marked in the same fashion as Sanskriti’s.

    By all means – By all means keep on working as long as you can.
    As a matter of fact – As a matter of fact I need a cup of tea from getting over headache.

    For this reason – Generally we think in a negative way for this reason we become sad. You did not try hard enough for this reason you are not successful in your exam.

    Not to mention – As I get older, I find myself getting disappointed, not to mention physical decline.

  4. Bro, it doesn’t matter that since and for should be used in the sentences, where we use ” has been or have been even had been” it depends on sentences if any particular words and actions are going on since a period of time or duration of time, in that case, we can use has been have been. No need to use for or since. For example – wo Delhi me rah Raha hai. He has been living in Delhi (correct). He is living in Delhi( incorrect). Because here we are talking about a period of time that’s why we use, ” has been or have been without since and for.

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