सभी Tense अब आपकी मुट्ठी में – Definition, Rules, Charts in Hindi & English

Tenses in English Grammar  – Definition, Rules, Charts in Hindi & English

इस आर्टिकल में सभी Tenses (काल) की Definition, Rules वो भी Tense Charts के साथ बिल्कुल सरल Hindi और English में उपलब्ध है। आपसे मेरी request है कि इस English Grammar आर्टिकल में दिये एक एक वीडियो को, एक एक Chart को ध्यान से देखिए, समझिए और नोट्स बनाइए। मेरा दावा है, आप Tense अच्छे से सीख जायेंगे।
सबसे पहले Tenses को पहचानना है। ये वीडियो आखिर तक देखो और जरा पहले Tense के Rules समझो । 

So now we know, there are three types of Tenses: Present, Past & Future.
तो अब हम जानते हैं कि काल तीन प्रकार के होते हैंः वर्तमान, भूत एवं भविष्य।

अब हम इन Rules के हिसाब से जरा कुछ Sentences में Tense की पहचान करते हैं  (ये वीडियो देखिए) –

इस वीडियो में मैंने आपको जो Homework दिया, उसके Answers ये रहे –

मैंने किताब नहीं खरीदी।
Maine kitaab nahi kharidi.
Tense – Past Indefinite
I did not buy the book.

मैंने उसकी आवाज पहचान ली है।
Mene uski aawaz pahchan li hai.
Tense – Present Perfect
I have recognized his voice.

मुझे एक घडी मिली है।
Mujhe ek ghadi mili hai.
Tense – Present Perfect
I have found a watch.

ये लोग हमें खेलने नहीं दे रहे हैं।
Ye log hame khelne nahi de rahe hain.
Tense – Present Continuous
These people are not letting us play.

मैं वहाँ एक बार गया हूँ।
Main wahaan ek baar gaya hu.
Tense – Present Perfect
I have gone there once.

अब तक आपको Tense को Identify करना जरूर आ गया होगा, बशर्ते आपने ऊपर दी गयी दोनों वीडियोज आखिर तक देखी हों। अब आगे एक एक करके सभी Tenses को cover करते हैं।

Present Indefinite Tense

इस Tense को Simple Present Tense भी कहते हैं।
Also known as the Simple Present Tense, the Present Indefinite Tense refers to an action which occurs regularly.

Rules:
Affirmative Sentence (सकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + V1 + {3rd person Singular के साथ s/es) + Object.
Negative Sentence (नकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + does/do + not + V1 + Object.
Interrogative Sentence (प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –
<WH> + does/do + Subject + V1 + Object?
Negative Interrogative Sentence (नकारात्मक प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –
<WH> + does/do + Subject + not + V1 + Object?

All the Tense Charts are available: CLICK HERE

When to use “s” and When to use “es” at the end of the verb in affirmative sentences

Only if the subject is third person singular, then ‘s’ or ‘es’ is added at the end of the verb; or else, nothing.

Rules for using ‘es’ at the end of the verb

If the verb ends with ‘o’, es is added at the end of the verb.
Example: go becomes goes, do becomes does, etc.

If the verb ends with ‘ss’ or ‘sh’, es is added at the end of the verb.
Example: kiss becomes kisses, buzz becomes buzzes, etc.

If the verb ends with an ‘x’, ‘zz’, or a ‘ch’, es is added at the end of the verb.
Example: fix becomes fixes, relax becomes relaxes, etc.

If the main verb ends with y with a consonant preceding it, es is added at the end of the verb.
Example: work becomes works, marry becomes marries, try becomes tries, etc.

 Rules for using ‘s’ at the end of the verb

If the verb ends with y with a vowel preceding it, an ‘s’ is added at the end of the verb.
Example: say becomes says, play becomes plays, etc.

अब ये वीडियो देखिए। आपको बारीकियाँ  समझ आयेंगी Present Indefinite Tense की। ये भी पता लगेगा कि कब Interrogative Sentence बिल्कुल Affirmative Sentence की तरह बनता है। (Who के साथ)

Examples of Affirmative Sentences

  • Ram runs for a km every day..
  • I run faster than you.
  • She talks to me.
  • He wants to learn.
  • They work hard.

Examples of Negative Sentences

  • Ram does not run.
  • I do not play basketball.
  • They do not read books.
  • He does not want to learn.
  • They do not work hard.

Examples of Interrogative Sentences

  • Does he sing?
  • Why do you go there?
  • Until what time do we play?
  • Does he attend school?
  • Does he wake up at 4 o’ clock?

Examples of Negative Interrogative Sentences

  • Does he not go to school?
  • Does he not study hard?
  • Do they not play together?
  • Why do you not scold him?

Present Continuous Tense

The Present Continuous Tense is used when actions being performed are still happening or the actions haven’t ended yet. The tense is also used to describe temporary actions.

Rules:
Affirmative Sentence (सकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + is/am/are + V1 + ing + Object.
Negative Sentence (नकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + is/am/are + not + V1 + ing + Object.
Interrogative Sentence (प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –

<WH> + is/am/are + Subject + V1 + ing + Object?
Negative Interrogative Sentence (नकारात्मक प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –
<WH> + is/am/are + Subject + not + V1 + ing + Object?

Which helping verb with which subject??
3rd person Singular Subject के साथ  – IS
1st Person Singular Subject (I) के साथ – AM
बाकी सभी (Rest all) के साथ – ARE 

Examples of Affirmative Sentences

  • She is going for a walk.
  • I am studying.
  • They are having their dinner.
  • They are going to a party.
  • She is crying.

Examples of Negative Sentences

  • She is not going for a walk.
  • I am not studying.
  • They are not having their dinner.
  • They are not going to the party.
  • She is not crying.

Examples of Interrogative Sentences

  • Why is she not going for a walk?
  • Why are you not studying hard for your examinations?
  • Are they not having their dinner?
  • Am I going to the party?
  • Why is she crying?

Examples of Negative Interrogative Sentences

  • Are we not going to school today?
  • Why you are not appearing for your examination today?
  • Why are you not going to meet her tomorrow?
  • Why is he not playing cricket this morning?
  • Am I not writing this letter?

Present Perfect Tense

The Present Perfect tense is used when we want to define or refer to past events having a connection to the present. Essentially, the Present Perfect tense is used to describe an action that occurred in the past but it still has a strong connection to the present.

Rules:
Affirmative Sentence (सकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + has/have + V3 + Object.
Negative Sentence (नकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + has/have + not + V3 + Object.
Interrogative Sentence (प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –

<WH> + has/have + Subject + V3 + Object?
Negative Interrogative Sentence (नकारात्मक प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –
<WH> + has/have + Subject + not + V3 + Object?

Which helping verb with which subject??
3rd person Singular Subject के साथ  – HAS
बाकी सभी (Rest all) के साथ – HAVE

Examples of Affirmative Sentences

  • The guests have left.
  • Ram has gone to school.
  • We have surrounded the premises.
  • She has replied to my message.
  • She has passed the exams with flying colors.

Examples of Negative Sentences

  • You have not completed your homework.
  • Ram had not gone out to play.
  • They have not arrived yet.
  • She has not qualified for the job.
  • They have not called us back.

Examples of Interrogative Sentences

  • Have you prepared for the upcoming examinations?
  • Has she read your book?
  • Have they called us back?
  • Have they returned your school notebook?
  • Have they finished playing the game?

Examples of Negative Interrogative Sentences

  • Why have you not paid the library dues?
  • Why has she not applied for the Mathematics olympiad?
  • Why have they not eaten the food?
  • Why has she not brought her books?
  • Why have you not done your homework?

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

 

The Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used to express an action which started in the past and is still going on. Sentences with the Past Perfect Continuous Tense are often accompanied by a reference showing a time of action. Usually, the words ‘since’ and ‘for’ are used as references.

Since – The word ‘since’ is used to express the exact time in which the action started.
For –The word ‘for’ is used to express an unknown amount of time passed. 

Rules:
Affirmative Sentence (सकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + has/have + been + V1 + ing + Obj + Since/For + {TIME}.
Negative Sentence (नकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + has/have + not + been + V1 + ing + Obj + Since/For + {TIME}.
Interrogative Sentence (प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –

<WH> + has/have + Subject + been + V1 + ing + Obj + Since/For + {TIME}?
Negative Interrogative Sentence (नकारात्मक प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –
<WH> + has/have + Subject + not + been + V1 + ing + Obj + Since/For + {TIME}?

Which helping verb with which subject??
3rd person Singular Subject के साथ  – HAS BEEN
बाकी सभी (Rest all) के साथ – HAVE BEEN

अगर आप Since और For के प्रयोग को थोडा और बेहतर समझना चाहें तो नीचे दी गयी ये वीडियो देख लीजिए।

Examples of Affirmative Sentence

  • He has been living here since 1947.
  • Ram has been walking for one hour.
  • She has been reading this book for a week.
  • They have been studying since seven o’ clock.
  • He has been waiting for me for over an hour.

Examples of Negative Sentences

  • She has not been studying since Sunday.
  • They have not been meeting each other for a year.
  • They have not been exercising since Monday.
  • He has not been practicing for a month.
  • You have not been returning my calls for a month.

Examples of Interrogative Sentences

  • What have they been talking about for two hours?
  • Why have they been fighting since last week?
  • Has she been teaching for twenty-five years?
  • Who has been making noise for the last hour?
  • Has he been reading the same book for the past seven days?

Examples of Negative Interrogative Sentences

  • Has he not been working on the same project for the last two weeks?
  • Have I not been saying the same thing since morning?
  • Have you not been going to the same barber since 2011?
  • Why have they not been ordering from us since last month?
  • What has he been doing in his room since yesterday?

Past Indefinite Tense

The Past Indefinite Tense is also known as the Past Simple Tense. It is used to refer to an action which occurred in the past.
इस Tense को Simple Past Tense भी कहते हैं।

Rules:
Affirmative Sentence (सकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + V2 + Object.
Negative Sentence (नकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + did + not + V1 + Object.
Interrogative Sentence (प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –
<WH> + did + Subject + V1 + Object?
Negative Interrogative Sentence (नकारात्मक प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –
<WH> + did + Subject + not + V1 + Object?

All the Tense Charts are available: CLICK HERE

Which helping verb with which subject??
सभी Subjects के साथ – DID
Note: No helping verb is used in affirmative sentences.

Examples of Affirmative Sentences

  • They went out for a walk.
  • He wrote a letter to her.
  • They played the game with their friends.
  • He submitted his homework on time.
  • They qualified for the exam.

Examples of Negative Sentences

  • They did not qualify for the finals.
  • They could not catch the bus on time.
  • They did not love the gift.
  • I did not wait for him.
  • She did not like the movie.

Examples of Interrogative Sentences

  • Did you like the book?
  • Did he read the book till the last page?
  • Did he start preparing for his examinations?
  • Why did they shift from their home?
  • Who was the previous owner of this book?

Examples of Negative Interrogative Sentences

  • Did I not bring my documents?
  • Did she not like dinner?
  • Did he not appear for the examination?
  • Did they forget to submit their assignments?
  • Did they not know about the quiz?

Past Continuous Tense

The Past Continuous Tense is also referred to as the Past Progressive Tense. It is used to describe a continuous action that was occurring for some point of time in the past.

Rules:
Affirmative Sentence (सकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + was/were + V1 + ing + Object.
Negative Sentence (नकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + was/were + not + V1 + ing + Object.
Interrogative Sentence (प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –

<WH> + was/were + Subject + V1 + ing + Object?
Negative Interrogative Sentence (नकारात्मक प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –
<WH> + was/were + Subject + not + V1 + ing + Object?

Which helping verb with which subject??
Singular Subjects के साथ  – WAS
Plural Subjects के साथ – WERE

Examples of Affirmative Sentences

  • He was writing an article.
  • They were working on the project.
  • She was completing her Mathematics homework.
  • He was preparing for his upcoming examinations.
  • She was repairing her car.

Examples of Negative Sentences

  • He was not getting enough hours of shut-eye.
  • They were not going on their excursion.
  • She was getting ready for her class picnic.
  • They were decorating the classroom for Teacher’s Day.
  • The children were running around the garden.

Examples of Interrogative Sentences

  • Were they leaving to go to college?
  • Was she accompanying them to the party?
  • Where were they organizing their picnic?
  • What was she doing in the last three hours?
  • Was she singing a song?

Examples of Negative Interrogative Sentences

  • Why was Mother not scolding them for their mistakes?
  • Why were you not calling out to me?
  • Was she not working during office hours?
  • Was I not answering the questions correctly?
  • Why was he not going for his walks?

Past Perfect Tense

The Past Perfect Tense is used to define actions which were performed or completed in the past. Often, the Past Perfect Tense is also used to depict actions which occurred a long time ago but are connected to other activities that have taken place right after it.

Rules:
Affirmative Sentence (सकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + had + V3 + Object.
Negative Sentence (नकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + had + not + V3 + Object.
Interrogative Sentence (प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –

<WH> + had + Subject + V3 + Object?
Negative Interrogative Sentence (नकारात्मक प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –
<WH> + had + Subject + not + V3 + Object?

Which helping verb with which subject??
सभी Subjects के साथ – HAD

Examples of Affirmative Sentences

  • The patient had passed away before the arrival of the doctor.
  • She had undergone numerous surgeries during her childhood.
  • She had completed the assignments but forgot to take them to school.
  • They had consumed too much junk food.
  • You had left even before I reached.

Examples of Negative Sentences

  • The class monitor had not informed the students about the deadline.
  • We had not cleaned our dorm room.
  • I had not known about the event.
  • They had not gone to school.
  • She had worn her new dress to her school farewell.

Examples of Interrogative Sentences

  • Had you prepared for your examination?
  • Why had she written a letter?
  • Who had he asked for help?
  • Had he quit smoking?
  • Why had he left before I reached the place?

Examples of Negative Interrogative Sentences

  • Why had she not invited you to her party?
  • Had they not changed the date of the examination yet?
  • Why had he not appeared for the examination?
  • Why had you not taken the medicine at the designated timings?
  • Why had they not accepted the proposal?

अब हम इस Tense Exercise के माध्यम से Present Perfect, Past Indefinite और Past Perfect के बीच के अनोखे फर्क को समझते हैं। नीचे दिया गया वीडियो किसी भी हालत में आखिर तक देखना होगा।

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Continuous Tenses are also referred to as Past Perfect Progressive Tenses. These tenses are used to define actions which started in the past and were finished in another time in the past. These tenses also contain a reference of time which is given by for and since, just like Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

Rules:
Affirmative Sentence (सकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + had + been + V1 + ing + Obj + Since/For + {TIME}.
Negative Sentence (नकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + had + not + been + V1 + ing + Obj + Since/For + {TIME}.
Interrogative Sentence (प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –

<WH> + had + Subject + been + V1 + ing + Obj + Since/For + {TIME}?
Negative Interrogative Sentence (नकारात्मक प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –
<WH> + had + Subject + not + been + V1 + ing + Obj + Since/For + {TIME}?

Which helping verb with which subject??
सभी Subjects के साथ – HAD

Examples of Affirmative Sentences

  • They had been watching the movie for two hours.
  • She had been studying since 8 o’ clock.
  • He had been applying for jobs for six months.
  • They had been running their business for over fifteen years.
  • I had been waiting for you since last week.

Examples of Negative Sentences

  • They had not been watching the movie for two hours.
  • She had not been studying 8 o’ clock.
  • He had not been applying for jobs for six months.
  • They had not been reading books for the last two weeks.
  • The kids had not been playing since 5 o’ clock.

Examples of Interrogative Sentences

  • Had they been working on the project since 2017?
  • Why had he been eating vegetarian food for two months?
  • Why had they been using the same camera since 2015?
  • Why had he been singing since 8 o’ clock?
  • Why hadthey been reading the books for two weeks?

Examples of Negative Interrogative Sentences

  • Why had she not been taking her medicine for two days?
  • Why had they not been cleaning their room for three weeks?
  • Why had he not been practicing for the examination since Monday?
  • When had he not been complaining about his problems since Tuesday?
  • Had he not been studying since his father left for work?

Future Indefinite Tense

Future Indefinite Tenses are also known as Future Simple Tenses. They are used to describe an action which will occur or happen in the future after it is expressed by the speaker.

Rules:
Affirmative Sentence (सकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + will + V1 + Obj.
Negative Sentence (नकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + will + not + V1 + Obj.
Interrogative Sentence (प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –

<WH> + will + Subject + V1 + Obj?
Negative Interrogative Sentence (नकारात्मक प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –

<WH> + will + Subject + not + V1 + Obj?

Which helping verb with which subject??
सभी Subjects के साथ – WILL

अब “SHALL” का प्रयोग केवल एक Modal Verb की तरह ही किया जाता है। इसीलिए अब आप अक्सर देखते हैं कि सभी Subjects के साथ “WILL” का ही प्रयोग किया जाता है।

Examples of Affirmative Sentences

  • He will arrive tomorrow.
  • She will buy it tomorrow.
  • They will send a gift to him.
  • She will leave for college.
  • He will marry her.

Examples of Negative Sentences

  • He will not help you.
  • They will not meet you.
  • She will not go to college.
  • He will not marry her.
  • The student will not appear for the exam this year.

Examples of Interrogative Sentences

  • When will you repair your fan?
  • When will the teacher conduct the test?
  • When will you start practicing for the test?
  • What will you eat tonight?
  • Why will he do the wrong thing?

Examples of Negative Interrogative Sentences

  • Why will she not send an invitation to him?
  • Why will he not appear for the examination?
  • Why will they not accompany us for the excursion?
  • Why will she not come here?
  • Why will he not start working?

Future Continuous Tense

Future Continuous Tenses are also referred to as Future Progressive Tenses. These tenses are usually used to refer to a situation which will start in the future and will continue for a certain period.

Rules:
Affirmative Sentence (सकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + will be + V1 + ing + Object.
Negative Sentence (नकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + will not be + V1 + ing + Object.
Interrogative Sentence (प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –

<WH> + will + Subject + be + V1 + ing + Object?
Negative Interrogative Sentence (नकारात्मक प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –
<WH> + will + Subject + not + be + V1 + ing + Object?

Which helping verb with which subject??
सभी Subjects के साथ – WILL BE

Examples of Affirmative Sentences

  • He will be preparing for his competition tomorrow.
  • You will be planning for the next step.
  • Your will be taking over the Advertisement department of the company.
  • Students will be taught newer subjects in their course.
  • They will not be dancing in the competition.

Examples of Negative Sentences

  • The interns will not receive a stipend for the internship.
  • She will not be going to school.
  • He will not be attending the lecture today.
  • They will not be playing today.
  • He will not be helping you with your assignment today.

Examples of Interrogative Sentences

  • Will he be helping us with the project?
  • Will they be going on the trip with us?
  • When will she be writing an essay?
  • When will they be preparing for the test?
  • Will she be singing a song at the event?

Examples of Negative Interrogative Sentences

  • Why will she not be singing a song at the event?
  • Why he not be helping us with the project?
  • Will I not be traveling during that time?
  • Will she not be studying at this hour?
  • Will Nikita not be playing at this time?

Future Perfect Tense

Future Perfect Tenses are used when we want to convey future actions which will be completed before another point of time in the future.

Rules:
Affirmative Sentence (सकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + will have + V3 + Object.
Negative Sentence (नकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + will have + not + V3 + Object.
Interrogative Sentence (प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –

<WH> + will + Subject + have + V3 + Object?
Negative Interrogative Sentence (नकारात्मक प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –
<WH> + will + Subject + not + have + V3 + Object?

Which helping verb with which subject??
सभी Subjects के साथ – WILL HAVE


Examples of Affirmative Sentences

  • They will have gone out to play by 6 PM.
  • He will have earned a lot of money by 2025.
  • She will have graduated by 2020.
  • She will have brought the necessary documents by then.

Examples of Negative Sentences

  • He will not have reached his home even by tonight.
  • She will have not have messaged us back.
  • They will not have planned for the party.
  • She will not have prepared the food when you reach home in the evening.

Examples of Interrogative Sentences

  • Will they have delivered the product on time?
  • Will they have helped their friend in need?
  • Will she have applied for college?
  • Will she have participated in the song competition?

Examples of Negative Interrogative Sentences

  • Why will have they have not called you?
  • Why will they not have planned for the excursion?
  • Why will they not have completed the project on time?
  • Why will they not have prepared a plan?

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Future Perfect Continuous Tenses are also referred to as Future Perfect Progressive Tenses. These tenses are used when we want to describe actions that will continue up to a certain point of time in the future.

Rules:
Affirmative Sentence (सकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + will have been + V1 + ing + Obj + Since/From/For + {TIME}.
Negative Sentence (नकारात्मक वाक्य) –
Subject + will not have been + V1 + ing + Obj + Since/From/For + {TIME}.
Interrogative Sentence (प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –

<WH> + will + Subject + have + been + V1 + ing + Obj + Since/From/For + {TIME}?
Negative Interrogative Sentence (नकारात्मक प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) –
<WH> + will + Subject + not + have + been + V1 + ing + Obj + Since/From/For + {TIME}?

Which helping verb with which subject??
सभी Subjects के साथ – WILL HAVE BEEN


To understand when to use Since, From or For, please watch the following video:

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6 thoughts on “सभी Tense अब आपकी मुट्ठी में – Definition, Rules, Charts in Hindi & English”

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